Jim Dowling - Mining Engineer

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ACCESS FROM SURFACE

 

Access can be gained by vertical shafts, declines (also called drifts, slopes or ramps) or horizontal adits. The chosen method depends on topography, reserve shape, reserve size and depth, production rate and custom and practice.

 

 

Typical underground layout with a vertical shaft

Typical underground layout with a vertical shaft

 

 

Typical underground layout with a surface decline

Typical underground layout with a surface decline

 

 

Typical underground layout with an adit from surface

Typical underground layout with an adit from surface

 

 

TYPICAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR ACCESS FROM SURFACE

 

Mine planning options relating to surface access into an underground mine must be very carefully considered, correct choices are critical to success and require large capital expenditure at the most sensitive early DCF stage. Underground mines require at least two means of egress, for ventilation and for emergency evacuation in the case of failure of one of them. In the UK this legal requirement was subsequent to an accident at a coal mine in 1862 - Hartley Colliery, Northumberland.

 

 

Typical deep underground layout with two vertical shafts and a sub vertical shaft

Typical deep underground layout with two vertical shafts and a sub vertical shaft

 

 

Layout with two vertical shafts and a decline extension

Layout with two vertical shafts and a decline extension

 

 

Layout with one or more vertical shafts and a surface decline

Layout with one or more vertical shafts and a surface decline

 


Layout with two surface declines

Layout with two surface declines

 

 

Layout with two shafts and an internal decline

Layout with two shafts and an internal decline

 

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